In today’s industrial setting, there are a number die casting manufacturing process you can adopt for you part production needs.
A reason this guide will answer all your questions on die casting manufacturing processes.
So, before choosing a die casting process, read this guide.
- What Is Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Are The Benefits Of Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Are Some Disadvantages Of The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- Which Metals Will You Use In The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Are The Types Of Die Casting Manufacturing Processes?
- How Does High Pressure And Low Pressure Die Casting Manufacturing Processes Compare?
- How Does Cold Chamber And Hot Chamber Die Casting Manufacturing Processes Compare?
- What Tooling Can You Use In Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Is The Process Cycle That You Will Perform During Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- How Does Heat And Pressure Determine The Metal You Will Use During Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Are The Applications Of Die Casting Manufacturing Processes?
- What Types Of Dies Can You Use In The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Should You Consider When Selecting Metals For The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Should You Consider When Designing Parts Using The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Factors Will You Consider When Buying Machines For The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- Are Die Casting Molds Important In The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
- What Are The Die Casting Mold Component To Consider During The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
What Is Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
Die casting manufacturing process is a technique where you will pour or force molten metal into moulds.
It allows you to make geometrically complex metal components through the use of these molds.
The moulds are also known as dies or tools and are mainly fabricated from steel with unique designs for every application or project.
This enables you to manufacture the components or parts with a high level of accuracy and consistency.
What Are The Benefits Of Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
The die casting manufacturing process has several benefits over other types of manufacturing processes.
This allows you to save both on the overall production cost and the price of the components.
When you cast components, you can form complex shapes, entailing external threads and internal traits with minute draft angles.
This allows you to spend less on secondary processes.
Also, you can combine several components into single parts thereby removing assembly-related operations and minimizing labor costs.
Here are some of the other benefits of the die casting manufacturing process:
The die casting manufacturing process is a way that you can use to increase the production speeds in your industry.
Whether you are using pressure or gravity die casting manufacturing process, it will save you lots of time.
This means you can meet your market demands within a short time when using the die casting manufacturing process.
The die casting manufacturing process offers suitable choices for the processing of your material metals.
Besides, it allows you to lower the production costs and enables your clients to enjoy this benefit at the end of the production chain.
Enhances Metal Strength
The products you make via the die casting manufacturing process are much stronger than other treatment options for metals.
Besides, die casting manufacturing process maintains the quality of the components.
For instance, your metals will degrade if you plan to use injection moulding processes.
Also, it adds extra value to the metals you are using in your application.
The die casting manufacturing process is very accurate which is why several industries are using it.
Besides, the final component or part has stable and accurate designs.
Furthermore, you can make a product that will meet your specification requirements through the use of the die casting manufacturing process.
A complete die casting manufacturing process has room for adding different versions of metal finishes.
Besides, you can adjust the process to meet your requirements like plated, galvanized, or coated metal finishes.
The die casting manufacturing process can include bearings, threaded inserts, or add-ons.
Die casting manufacturing process can include studs, bosses, or drill holes within the design of the mold.
The die casting manufacturing process allows you to make large amounts of components uniformly.
The parts you make using die casting manufacturing process have a tensile strength of 415 MPa or 60000 PSI.
The die casting manufacturing process enables you to fabricate complex components with very high tolerance levels.
To increase the efficiency and lower the cost of the die casting manufacturing process, you can use pneumatic and hydraulic devices.
What Are Some Disadvantages Of The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
Here are some limitations to using the die casting manufacturing process:
All moulds you use in the die casting manufacturing process need to be precisely made.
This means you will spend more time shaping and crafting the moulds.
The furnaces you use in the die casting manufacturing process reach thousands of degrees.
This means you will consume a lot of energy and produce pollutants that you need to filter before releasing them.
The die casting manufacturing process can only handle metals that have a high rate of fluidity.
This will influence the components you can fabricate.
The dies you make for the die casting manufacturing process are costly, made of durable stainless steel, and you cannot adjust them.
It is important to closely monitor and manage the die casting manufacturing process, especially in the cooling stage.
Some of the defects you can encounter include metal pouring, shrinkage, or porosity.
Which Metals Will You Use In The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
The most common metals you will use in die casting manufacturing process include the following:
This is a common metal that is widely used in different applications in today’s world.
Furthermore, you need to understand the different zinc alloys before choosing the one suitable for your application.
Some of the most common zinc alloys you will find include Zamalak alloy and ZA alloys.
Besides, zinc is suitable material since it can withstand high temperature and pressure levels.
Using this process, zinc alloys and metal find their applications in several areas.
This alloy is a combination of zinc and copper metals.
Besides, there are different types of brass alloys, which come about due to the different levels of zinc and copper.
Furthermore, you can add other metal materials in brass to improve their characteristics to desirable levels.
Examples of brass alloys you can use include the following:
- Alpha brass
- Aluminum brass
- Admiralty brass
- Beta brass
- Duplex brass
One main advantage of a brass alloy is that it is simple to machine.
Brass metal alloys are easy to use in the die casting manufacturing process.
Besides, brass has a high level of strength and is highly resistant to corrosion, which adds to its benefits.
Also, it has a low melting point, thus, it is easy to work with during the die casting manufacturing process.
One of the most common metals you will use in the die casting manufacturing process is aluminum.
Besides, aluminum is affordable and has been used for a very long time.
Also, aluminum metal has suitable strength levels making them suitable for different application ranges.
Aluminum is also recyclable and it is a suitable metal to manufacture into usable components or parts.
There are different types of aluminum alloys and they include:
- B390 alloy
- Alloy 383
- B360 alloy
- Alloy 413, etc.
Some of the benefits of aluminum metal that make them suitable for the die casting manufacturing process include the following:
- High operating temperature
- Suitable thermal properties, etc.
This is also another metal you can use in the die casting manufacturing process as it is extremely versatile.
For this reason, you can use steel in several applications.
Steel is an alloy of both iron and carbon, and this means it contains similar properties as these two elements.
This makes steel metal contain several excellent performance characteristics.
Besides, you can find the following components within steel:
- Chromium, etc.
Some examples of steel you can use in die casting manufacturing process include:
- Carbon steel
- Alloy steel
- Tool steel
- Stainless steel
Steel also has favorable characteristics that make them suitable for the die casting manufacturing process.
- Extra strength
- Thermal conductivity
- Corrosion resistance
- Electrical conductivity
Die casting manufacturing process can use copper-based alloys.
Copper alloys are durable thus effective for mechanical products.
Since copper has high levels of resistance against corrosion, they are suitable for electrical and plumbing applications.
This metal has a high strength-to-weight ratio even though it is a light alloy.
Magnesium is suitable for applications needing tight precision and thin-wall structures.
What Are The Types Of Die Casting Manufacturing Processes?
The three main types of methodologies you can use in die casting manufacturing process entail the following:
Pressure Die Casting Manufacturing Process
High pressure die casting process
This process is good or high-volume run components.
It can produce components with thin walls while maintaining their quality.
Besides, different die casting machines ranging between 80 and 1100 tons are used as it depends on the pressure you need.
The pressure die casting manufacturing process uses external pressure to force molten metal within different moulds.
There are two categories under this type, that is, low pressure and high pressure die casting.
They all rely on the amount of pressure you will use in the die casting manufacturing process.
Some benefits of pressure die casting manufacturing processes include the following:
- This process can manufacture parts that possess high mechanical characteristics.
That is, the components contain suitable finishes and tight dimensional accuracy.
For this reason, you will use it to manufacture intricate machine components.
- The process is suitable for producing components on a large scale.
This is because the pressure will increase the molten metal rate of flow.
However, it is not suitable for use in short production processes because it has high setup costs.
- It maintains the purity of the final product.
The final component is free from the effects of oxidation as there is no gas within the metals.
- The pressure die casting manufacturing process is more economical than other casting methods.
This proves to be correct when you are applying it in large production runs.
Besides, you can manufacture components in the thousands before considering replacing the parts of the machine.
- Depending on the amount of pressure that you apply, you can easily control the dimension of the product outcome.
- The pressure die casting manufacturing process is suitable for casting metals that are lightweight and have thin walls.
Some limitations of the pressure die casting manufacturing process include the following:
- The process is conducive to producing components in large amounts.
- Because of the technology in the system, the initial cost is usually high.
- The pressure die casting manufacturing process is suitable for metal parts with high fluidity levels.
Gravity Die Casting Manufacturing Process
Gravity die casting
This process is suitable for use in the manufacture of components in medium to high production runs.
Besides, it will use permanent moulds under normal situations making it possible to attain a near-net-shape component.
The gravity die casting manufacturing process can either be automatic or manual.
Also, the weight of the outcome component depends on the type of gravity die casting machine you are using in your application.
This process is widely accepted in several industries because it lowers the production cost.
Besides, gravity die casting manufacturing process tooling cost less than those for high-pressure die casting manufacturing processes.
Let us consider the operational principle of the vacuum die casting manufacturing process.
The gravity die casting manufacturing process operates by relying on gravity and not pressure.
There is no force that you will apply to enable the molten metal to flow in this process.
Furthermore, you will use this process to cast non-ferrous alloys such as zinc, copper, and aluminum.
Also, you will use this process to manufacture heavy metal parts.
However, the components you produce using this process are thinner than those you manufacture through sand casting.
There are four main processes you will employ during the gravity die casting manufacturing process:
- The first step entails heating the mould, then spraying with lubricants, and finally closing the unit.
Lubricants are important as they assist in controlling the temperature of the mould.
- Pour the molten metal into the mould and allow it to cool.
- Opening the die to eliminate the metal cast part with the assistance of ejector pins.
- Preparing the die for the upcoming casting process.
The gravity die casting manufacturing process allows you to make parts with complex shapes.
Some parts you can manufacture using this process include the following:
- Diesel engine components
- Cylinder components
- Air conditioning units
- Valve flow units, etc.
The benefits of the gravity die casting manufacturing process include the following:
- The dimensional accuracy is better.
- It minimizes the secondary operations that you can perform.
- With the assistance of undercuts, you can make undercuts.
- It is possible to attain a fast production rate.
- The surface of the final components is smoother than those from sand casting.
- It can produce thin walls.
- The process adds to the mechanical properties of the metal such as high tensile strength.
The limitations of the gravity die casting manufacturing process entail the following:
- A high initial cost.
- It can only attain a minimum wall thickness value that ranges between 3 mm and 5 mm.
- The process does not support the manufacture of very complicated shapes.
Vacuum Die Casting Manufacturing Process
Vacuum die casting
This process is being employed by industries that are manufacturing large components.
Normally, large components tend to have issues with porosity as the air gets trapped in the part during the casting process.
However, the vacuum die casting manufacturing process proves to be suitable for solving the porosity issues.
Let us have a look at how the vacuum die casting manufacturing process operates.
In several situations, you will manufacture the die from steel material in airtight bell housings.
Molten metal will enter the vacuum and die via two receivers, that is, the sprue and the outlet top.
When there is a pressure difference, the molten metal will flow up the sprue and into the die where it will solidify.
This process happens repeatedly.
When you vary the vacuum between the cavity and molten metal, you can control the pressure differential in this system.
Also, this process needs tight control units which you can attain in the process design.
The automotive industry relies on this method to manufacture a variety of engine components.
The benefits of the vacuum die casting manufacturing process include:
- Die cast components contain suitable welding traits.
- Vacuum die casting has low production scatter.
- Components contain high mechanical strength.
- The die will produce accurate components that may do without secondary processes.
- It is superior at minimizing gas porosity.
The limitations of the vacuum die casting manufacturing process entail:
- It has a high initial setup cost.
- The process of setting up this process is difficult.
- Some components may need secondary processes as they may fail to be highly accurate.
Consider the following aspects when you want the vacuum die casting process to be successful:
- The vacuum part needs to be of high quality for you to attain high performance.
Properly seal the die and the shot assembly to ensure reliability and efficiency.
- Control the velocity and pressure profiles to produce high precision and reproducibility.
- Ensure you control the following parts: plunger lubrication, die control temperature, die spraying, molten metal fees.
How Does High Pressure And Low Pressure Die Casting Manufacturing Processes Compare?
Here is how these two compare:
High Pressure Die Casting Manufacturing Process
In this manufacturing process, you will inject the molten metal into a metal due to very high pressure levels.
This process occurs under extremely high pressure and velocities.
In most applications, during the die casting manufacturing process, temperatures are normally about 700°C.
Some benefits of high pressure die casting manufacturing process include:
- It is suitable for the production of parts in large volume
- It is highly flexible and ensures quick delivery
- Allows you to attain components with tight tolerance levels
- It enables you to make lightweight parts
- Guarantees a high production rate for metal components
- It can manufacture complex components
- The final product has a superior finish as they have smooth finishes
- It can make components with small thickness levels
- The process is precise as you require minimal to no machining
The limitations of high pressure die casting manufacturing process include:
- Tooling costs are higher than that of the gravity die casting manufacturing process
- The casting size is determined by the size of the machine
- It may require you to use complex machinery
- Not economical for use in the production of products on a small scale
High pressure die casting manufacturing process
Low Pressure Die Casting Manufacturing Process
In this process, you will inject the molten metal into the cavity at low-pressure levels.
Also, the die cast components you manufacture using low pressure die casting manufacturing process are better than those from gravity die casting.
However, high pressure process produces higher quality than those you manufacture from a low-pressure process.
Low pressure die casting manufacturing process is suitable for casting metals that have a low melting point such as aluminum and magnesium.
The pressure you require to sustain this process ranges between 2 PSI and 15 PSI.
This pressure will cause the molten metal within the furnace to rise upwards in a tube then enter the die cavity.
low pressure die casting manufacturing process
Once the molten metal solidifies, you will release the air pressure.
Some benefits of low pressure die casting manufacturing process include:
- This process works well when you are producing products in small quantities.
- It is difficult to attain components with thin walls.
- This process will guarantee high yields of about 90%.
- It has enhanced linear tolerance than that of gravity die casting.
- The process allows you to heat treat the casting.
- It allows you to attain a high metal component production capacity.
- The production cost is lower than that of high pressure die casting process.
- It enhances the surface finish thus minimizing secondary operations.
Some limitations of low pressure die casting manufacturing process entail:
- The process needs costly and complex equipment.
- Tooling costs are higher than other processes like gravity die casting.
How Does Cold Chamber And Hot Chamber Die Casting Manufacturing Processes Compare?
This is how these two processes compare:
Hot Chamber Die Casting Manufacturing Process
This process will use metal alloys that have low melting points.
The dies of the hot chamber die casting manufacturing process have two parts, the fixed portion, and the movable portion.
In this process, you will hold the molten metal in open containing pots that connect to combustion furnaces.
hot chamber die casting
It is from here that the molten metal will enter the holding point.
Cold Chamber Die Casting Manufacturing Process
In this process, you will transfer the molten metal using a ladle either manually or automatically to shot sleeves.
cold chamber die casting
Actuation within the injection pistons will force the molten metal to enter the die.
This process will lower contact time between the injector parts and the hot molten metal, thus assisting in enhancing their operating life.
What Tooling Can You Use In Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
The benefits of a multi-slide tooling mechanism include the following:
- First time overall or net shape
- It will remove secondary functions such as machining and assembly
- Also, it ensures minimum part-to-part variety when you compare it to conventional multi-cavity dies
- It can achieve tight tolerance levels and complex configurations at higher speeds
- The tooling is compact and will minimally encounter parting-line variation and the unwanted effects on the final component tolerance dimension
This tooling can have either a multiple or a single cavity design.
The tooling is made to lower secondary operations and be efficient, thus lowering production costs.
Other advantages of conventional tooling include:
- The production is efficient as the water and cooling lines are properly planned
- To enhance the durability of the tooling, it contains steel-braced dies
- It achieves net-shape die casts and the design focuses on avoiding secondary operations
- The design of the die is efficient enough to manage production in high volumes
What Is The Process Cycle That You Will Perform During Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
There are different types of die casting manufacturing processes you can perform.
The steps you will conduct entail the following:
Before you start any die casting manufacturing process, you need to prepare the die.
This stage entails heating the die then spraying the surface with a lubricant or refractory coating.
The lubricant maintains the temperature of the die during the die casting manufacturing process.
It also inhibits premature solidification of the cast and assists in removing the component after it has been set.
Afterward, you will tightly close and clamp the die halves.
This stage will be determined by the type of die casting manufacturing method you are using for your application.
After preparation, you will transfer the molten metal to the die either manually or automatically.
For instance, you can use pressure, vacuum, or gravity die casting techniques in this process.
Once the molten metal is within the die cast, you will leave it to cool and solidify.
Before you remove the clamp, allow ample time for the metal to set and attain the shape of the mould.
Furthermore, you will experience irreversible defects should you remove the die cast before time.
In this stage, you will unclamp and open the die halves after the cool time has elapsed.
Thereafter, you will carefully remove the cast component.
This can happen manually or with the use of ejector pins that will safely push the cast from the die casting machine.
This is the last step you will undertake following the die casting manufacturing process.
As the metal component continually cools, you will scrap metals such as sprues, gates, runners, and flash from the cast.
Also, you can use special tools to remove surplus material and sharp edges.
This allows you to attain the suitable shape of the die cast, then you will clean the part before packing and shipping.
How Does Heat And Pressure Determine The Metal You Will Use During Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
Die casting manufacturing process is not usable with all metal types as they have varying chemical and physical properties.
Since die casting manufacturing process applies heat and pressure, you can only use it on select metals that can withstand it.
Here is how heat and pressure influence the metal choice for your die casting manufacturing process:
When performing the die casting manufacturing process, you need to apply ample heat to metals to melt them.
Furthermore, the heating process should retain suitable traits of the metal alloy.
This means that the properties of the metal you are using should remain constant even at high-temperature levels.
The metal you are using needs to retain its desirable characteristics even under the pressure you will be applying.
What Are The Applications Of Die Casting Manufacturing Processes?
Since you can use various metal alloys in this process, their application is very broad.
Some of the uses of this process entail the production of the following:
- Medical equipment
- Instrumental components
- Manufacturing industries
- Processing industries
- Aerospace industries
- Automotive industries
- Chemical processing industries
- Decorative industries
- Electrical industries
- Plumbing industries
What Types Of Dies Can You Use In The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
The different types of dies you can use include:
These can produce single units and are suitable for machines that can handle one die.
These can produce several units of similar components in one casting process.
This is a form of multiple cavity but instead of manufacturing similar components, it can produce various parts that will fit together.
These are dies you can insert in larger dies.
The large die is fixed and you can vary the unit to make various parts.
What Should You Consider When Selecting Metals For The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
These properties include:
- Tensile strength
- Yield strength
- Impact strength
This entails understanding the metal behavior when you subject it to harsh environmental conditions.
These include high temperature or pressure levels.
This entails understating the composition of the individual metal elements and their applications.
What Should You Consider When Designing Parts Using The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
This entails understanding where you are to use the component, for instance, for cosmetic or structural function.
Consumers usually take interest in external appearance therefore you need the part to be visually appealing.
This entails planning on the surface finish for your application.
The assembly process can be complicated or simple depending on the complexity of the components.
Besides, you can segment and assemble the parts using the following methods:
- Cored holes
- Threading, etc.
The budget you have will affect the design you can attain.
Make sure the budget does not affect the quality of the final product.
What Factors Will You Consider When Buying Machines For The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
These include the following:
These machines range from 80 tons or more and rely on the application.
These parts assist in the movement of different parts such as relief valves, vane pumps, accumulators, etc.
Die Locking System
Most machines use hydraulic units and they need to be adjustable to contain different types of dies.
Heat Exchanger Unit
It operates by cooling the system and inhibiting moulds from overheating.
This is the part where the entire machine will sit, therefore, it should be strong.
They are vital for hydraulic machines and consist of motors, relays, switchgear, etc.
Injection And Ejection Unit
They operate using hydraulic units getting power from high-pressure accumulators.
Are Die Casting Molds Important In The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
They contain channels where the molten metal will flow and attain the desired shape.
Also, the mould design depends on the shape you need to attain for your final product.
What Are The Die Casting Mold Component To Consider During The Die Casting Manufacturing Process?
They minimize shrinkage and allow easy removal of cast components.
It connects moulds and should be free of deformations to ensure uniform moulding.
They are smooth concave surface junctions on the corners of the moulds allowing easy removal of cast parts.
They enhance material strength, minimizing cracking stress and improving fill capacities.
These include logos, brand names, or usage instructions.
They act as mounting points when designing the moulds.
Windows And Holes
They allow easy removal of die cast components.
High Pressure Die Casting Process
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